Direct Optimal Mapping Image Power Spectrum and its Window Functions
The key to detecting neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization (EoR) is to separate the cosmological signal from the dominating foreground radiation. We developed direct optimal mapping (Xu et al. 2022) to map interferometric visibilities; it contains only linear operations, with full knowledge of point spread functions from visibilities to images. Here we present an FFT-based image power spectrum and its window functions based on direct optimal mapping. We use noiseless simulation, based on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) Phase I configuration, to study the image power spectrum properties. The window functions show <10−11 power leakage from the foreground-dominated region into the EoR window; the 2D and 1D power spectra also verify the separation between the foregrounds and the EoR. Furthermore, we simulated visibilities from a uv-complete array and calculated its image power spectrum. The result shows that the foreground--EoR leakage is further suppressed below 10−12, dominated by the tapering function sidelobes; the 2D power spectrum does not show signs of the horizon wedge. The uv-complete result provides a reference case for future 21cm cosmology array designs.