Electromagnetic force and torque are typically derived from a stress tensor in conjunction with Maxwell's equations of classical electrodynamics. In some instances, the Principle of Least Action (built around a Lagrangian) can be used to arrive at the same mathematical expressions of force and torque as those derived from a... Show more

August 6, 2021

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Electromagnetic force and torque derived from a Lagrangian in conjunction with the Maxwell-Lorentz equations

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