Physics-Informed Design of Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) Tests for Rechargeable Batteries
Industry-standard diagnostic methods for rechargeable batteries, such as hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests for hybrid electric vehicles, provide some indications of state of health (SoH), but lack a physical basis to guide protocol design and identify degradation mechanisms. We develop a physics-based theoretical framework for HPPC tests, which accurately determines kinetic parameters that capture root causes of battery degradation. We show that voltage pulses are generally preferable to current pulses, since voltage-resolved linearization more rapidly quantifies degradation without sacrificing accuracy or allowing significant state changes during the measurement. In addition, asymmetric amounts of information gain between (dis)charge pulses were found from differences in electrode kinetic scales. We demonstrate our approach of physics-informed HPPC on simulated Li-ion batteries with nickel-rich cathodes and graphite anodes. Multivariable optimization by physics-informed HPCC rapidly determines kinetic parameters that correlate with degradation phenomena at the anode, such as solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth and lithium plating, as well as at the cathode, such as oxidation-induced cation disorder. Standardized voltage protocols for HPPC tests could play a pivotal role in expediting battery SoH assessment and accelerating materials design by providing new electrochemical features for interpretable machine learning of battery degradation.